Who invented electron microscopes?

Who invented electron microscopes? Here's a brief history of the key moments in electron microscopy—so far! 1924: French physicist Louis de Broglie (1892–1987) realizes that electron beams have a wavelike nature similar to light. Five years later, he wins the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. 1931: German scientists Max Knoll (1897–1969) and his pupil Ernst Ruska (1906–1988) build the first experimental TEM

What is the sputtering?

What is the sputtering? Sputtering is a technique used to deposit thin films of a material onto a surface (a.k.a. "substrate"). By first creating a gaseous plasma and then accelerating the ions from this plasma into some source material (a.k.a. "target"), the source material is eroded by the arriving ions via energy transfer and is ejected in

How a scanning electron microscope (SEM) works?

How a scanning electron microscope (SEM) works? A scanning electron microscope scans a beam of electrons over a specimen to produce a magnified image of an object. That’s completely different from a TEM, where the beam of electrons goes right through the specimen. Electrons are fired into the machine. The main part of the machine (where the object is scanned)